Sinus arrest, a term used interchangeably with sinoatrial arrest, is a disorder that involves failure of the sinoatrial node to discharge an electrical impulse for 2 seconds or more. It is associated with conditions such as sinus node dysfunction, certain drugs, myocardial infarction, and electrolyte imbalances (hyperkalemia). It may or may not be symptomatic.
Sinus arrest primarily affects older patients . It may arise either as a manifestation of sinus node dysfunction, as a side effect from certain drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases (eg. digitalis), as a complication of myocardial ischemia or sleep apnea, and alongside a fibrotic sinoatrial node condition  .
Depending on whether the arrest lasts for 2 seconds or for a longer period of time, sinus arrest causes symptoms ranging from mild/unnoticed to severe and life-threatening. Patients diagnosed with the condition usually belong to the senior age group and exhibit various comorbidities. The most common manifestations associated with sinus arrest include syncope, light-headedness, loss of orientation, weakness, angina, and heart failure   . Loss of consciousness experienced by a patient due to sinus arrest is known as Adam-Stokes attack. Oliguria may also complicate the clinical picture.
Sinus arrest during periictal period has been observed by a study to frequently arise in patients with inadequately controlled epilepsy . In a typical sinus arrest case, should the electrical activity be paused for too long, different cellular groups will undertake the pacemaking responsibility until the sinoatrial node recovers. If that does not happen, sinus arrest can lead to hypoxia, multiple organ system failure, and cardiac arrest.
Entire Body System
- Heart Disease
Vasovagal syncope following exercise in the absence of structural heart disease is uncommonly reported. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Slow Pulse
Symptoms of SSS include: fainting or fainting sensations fatigue dizziness palpitations (abnormal heart beats) very slow pulse (bradycardia) difficulty breathing chest pain mental confusion memory problems disrupted sleep It’s important to see your doctor [healthline.com]
- Skipped Beats
Patients who have sinus pauses may complain of missed or skipped beats, flutters, palpitations, hard beats or may feel faint, dizzy or lightheaded or experience a syncopal episode (passing out). Frequent pauses would heighten these symptoms. [equimedcorp.com]
Guillain-Barre syndrome, or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, is frequently accompanied by cardiac and autonomic dysfunction. [jhu.pure.elsevier.com]
Abstract Guillain-Barre syndrome, or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, is frequently accompanied by cardiac and autonomic dysfunction. [neurology.org]
We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome where the catatonia clearly followed the administration of neuroleptics and where the neurovegetative disturbance was remarkably severe, including episodes of tracheal spasm, apnoea and episodes of bradycardia [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Exercise-Induced Syncope
The unusual nature of the diagnosis offers an opportunity to review the mechanism of vasovagal as well as exercise-induced syncope. [casereports.bmj.com]
Sinus arrest is detected via a 12-lead electrocardiogram. Senior individuals who present with symptoms possibly originating from the cardiovascular system, such as angina, loss of consciousness, and fatigue, should always undergo an electrocardiographic evaluation.
A typical sinus arrest electrocardiogram (ECG) will reveal an absence of P waves, with a duration ≥ 2 seconds. Of note, the length of the pause cannot be expressed as a multiple of the basic sinus cycle length. Occasionally and when the P waves are absent for a relatively long time, escape beats appear, as other groups of myocardial cells undertake the pacemaking process for a brief period of time. The R-R interval before and after sinus arrest is stable.
Given that sinus arrest occurs as a result of sinus node dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, certain drugs, and other causes, these need to be investigated as well. Laboratory tests can illustrate a potential hyperkalemia, the ECG will also diagnose ongoing ischemic alterations of the myocardium, and ambulatory or long-term ECG monitoring can also be employed in order to investigate the presence of an underlying pathology and confirm where the symptoms originate from .
- P Wave Absent
Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) Video licensed from Rate: rapid and disorganized Rhythm: irregular and chaotic P Wave: absent but can be recognizable PRI: not measurable QRS: fibrillatory waves; wide irregular oscillations of the baseline. [ceufast.com]
P waves: absent, irregular fibrillation waves seen instead 5. PR interval: not measurable 6. Interpretation: Atrial Fibrillation a) If ventricular rate is 100, called uncontrolled A-fib b) If ventricular rate is 100, called controlled A-fib G. [andrews.edu]
In this case report, a patient was presented who had adverse reactions such as nausea, dizziness, insomnia under citalopram treatment, and after his drug was changed to sertraline, developed sinus arrest on the fourth day of treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The long-term prognosis of exercise-induced vasovagal syncope is unclear. [casereports.bmj.com]
Treatment and prognosis depend on the cause and cardiac status of the patient. This condition may be drug induced or it may be a result of cardiac disease. [equimedcorp.com]
Prognosis of sinus node dysfunction is mixed; without treatment, mortality is about 2%/yr, primarily resulting from an underlying structural heart disorder. Each year, about 5% of patients develop AF with its risks of heart failure and stroke. [merckmanuals.com]
After reviewing the literature and discussing possible etiologies for this unusual adverse drug reaction in this setting, we recommend that metoclopramide be used with caution in patients prone to develop bradyarrythmias, particularly those with dysautonomias [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
0.11 sec or less Etiology May occur with hypoxia, myocardial ischemia or infarction, hyperkalemia, medications (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers), and increased vagal tone Conduction SA node fails to initiate electrical impulse for one or more [ecgreview.weebly.com]
This is further evidence for its etiologic role in intravenous phenytoin toxicity, a phenomenon which is almost always related to infusion rate. The ethanol intravenous diluent fraction may precipitate a reaction in patients taking disulfiram . [jaccr.com]
Etiology of sinus pauses and arrest: alteration in the impulse rate of the P cells. Therefore, the pause length is variable and not necessarily a multiple of the basic sinus rate. [hqmeded-ecg.blogspot.com]
Only a few epidemiologic studies have been published. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Epidemiology [ edit ] Sick sinus syndrome is a relatively uncommon syndrome in the young and middle-aged population. [en.wikipedia.org]
/Richard Parad (US) The arguments for and against a safety net strategy in the NBS protocol - Olaf Sommerburg (DE) Newborn screening in Australia, investigating alternative strategies such as PAP - Enzo Ranieri (AU) 08:30-10:00 Symposium 4 - Beyond Epidemiology [ecfs.eu]
It is therefore suggested that the underlying pathophysiology involved autonomic dysfunction. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
It is therefore suggested that the underlying pathophysiology involved autonomie dysfunction. [nejm.org]
Pathophysiology of isolated systolic hypertension in elderly patients: Doppler echocardiographic insights. American Heart Journal. 122(2) : 528-34, 1991. [health.usf.edu]
Pathophysiology The sinus node (SN) is a subepicardial structure normally located in the right atrial wall near the superior vena cava entrance on the upper end of the sulcus terminalis. [emedicine.medscape.com]
This report emphasizes that a sphenopalatine ganglion blockade can be employed in the treatment and prevention of sinus arrest associated with postherpetic trigeminal distribution neuralgia. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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